Faculty Publications

  • 2022
  • Joanne Yu, Roman Egger
    "Looking behind the scenes at dark tourism: a comparison between academic publications and user-generated-content using natural language processing"
    2022 in: Journal of Heritage Tourism.

    Although scholars have discussed the topic of dark tourism from various angles, little is known from tourists’ perspectives. Thus, it remains largely unanswered whether the research agendas in the field of dark tourism also correspond to the reality of tourism or whether relevant topics remain unaddressed. This study uses natural language processing approaches to uncover the differences and similarities in knowledge between tourists and researchers based on academic publications and Instagram posts. The results provide insights into underexplored tourist experiences at various dark places, such as Vienna, Philadelphia, Estonia, and the Czech Republic. The findings also uncover activities rarely considered as a form of dark tourism, such as urban exploration and ghost hunting. By highlighting the differences in perceptions between scholars and tourists, this study points to future research directions and offers insights into what interests tourists to various stakeholders.

    Author(s): Joanne Yu, Roman Egger

    Publication date: 20. 7. 2022

    Electronic version(s), related files and links: http://dx.doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1080/1743873X.2022.2097011

  • "Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA)"

    Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is a non-parametric, deterministic method for evaluating performance. DEA estimates best practice production frontiers and measures the relative efficiency of peer entities. These entities are called decision-making units (DMUs) and are assumed to be homogeneous. This assumption implies that all DMUs (e.g., hotels, Airbnb listings, destinations) pursue the same or at least similar goals (e.g., increasing occupancy rate, increasing guest satisfaction). Then, their performances are evaluated. DEA has been successfully used in various contexts, with continuous applications across disciplines and sectors as diverse as agriculture, Airbnb listings, banking, education, hospitals, hotels, transportation and travel agencies. The literature also highlights the method’s superior benchmarking abilities over other operations research techniques. This characteristic alone makes DEA interesting to decision makers. It gives them an opportunity to improve the performance of their DMUs. Benchmarking is all about improvement.

    Author(s): Bozana Zekan, Ulrich Gunter

    Publication date: 7. 2022

    Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd

    Electronic version(s), related files and links: http://dx.doi.org/10.4337/9781800377486

    Host publication editor(s): D. Buhalis

  • "The City Destinations Alliance Benchmarking Report: 18th Official Edition"

    Author(s): Bozana Zekan, Karl Wöber, Kimberley Marr

    Publication date: 7. 2022

    Publisher: City Destinations Alliance (CityDNA)

  • David Bourdin, Ilona Pezenka, Christian Weismayer
    "Poker face or smiley face? The interplay of employees’ emotional expressiveness and personality in shaping job skills"

    Author(s): David Bourdin, Ilona Pezenka, Christian Weismayer

    Publication date: 24. 6. 2022

  • Christian Weismayer, Ilona Pezenka, David Bourdin, Lorena Gomez-Diaz
    "Analyzing cultural differences of destination commercials using facial expression analysis"

    Author(s): Christian Weismayer, Ilona Pezenka, David Bourdin, Lorena Gomez-Diaz

    Publication date: 22. 6. 2022

  • "Applied Research in Quality of Life: A Computational Literature Review"
    2022 in: Applied Research in Quality of Life. Volume: 17. Issue number: 3 Pages: 1433-1458

    As quality of life (QoL) is a highly interdisciplinary topic with a multitude of related research areas, it is beneficial to avail researchers of an overview of the different streams explored in the field. Furthermore, knowledge of prominent sub-domains helps researchers identify links and overlaps between QoL and their fields of interest. To meet these needs, a text-mining-based computational literature review (CLR) of the journal of Applied Research in Quality of Life (ARQOL) was conducted using a machine learning process, latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA), in combination with selection criteria for the decision on the number of topics. The outcome provides the reader with a list of the twelve most heavily discussed topics: 1) consumption & materialism, 2) character strength, 3) spirituality, religiousness & personal beliefs, 4) inequality, 5) leisure & tourism, 6) health related QoL (HRQoL) I, 7) quality of working life (QWL), 8) childhood & adolescence, 9) disparity & development, 10) disorder, 11) community issues, and 12) health related QoL (HRQoL) II. In addition, authors, titles, and publication dates are listed for the top-5-ranked papers that most typify these topics. Subsequent content summaries of these papers reveal more detailed information, such as measurement constructs and theories.

    Author(s): Christian Weismayer

    Publication date: 6. 2022

    Volume: 17

    Issue number: 3

    Pages: 1433-1458

    Electronic version(s), related files and links: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11482-021-09969-9

  • Sgouris Sgouridis, Christian Kimmich, Jordi Solé, Martin Černý, Melf-Hinrich Ehlers, Christian Kerschner
    "Visions before models: The ethos of energy modeling in an era of transition"
    2022 in: Energy Research and Social Science. Volume: 88. Issue number: June 2022

    Energy-Economy-Environment (E3) models feature prominently in energy policy and climate mitigation planning. Nevertheless, these models have a mixed track record when assessed retrospectively and exhibit biases that can make them counterproductive for prescriptive policy during transition. We argue that in times of energy transitions it is preferable to develop a vision of the desired future energy system rather than relying on techno-economic solutions based on simple objectives (e.g. lower carbon emissions). We support this argument through reasoned inference supported by historical examples. A critical appraisal of E3 modeling exercises highlights the biases, structural or implicit, favoring existing energy system modalities. As a result, if E3 models are uncritically used to formulate long-term energy policy, there is the risk of unintended or deliberate performativity preventing a radical transition. Given the significant learning-by-doing effects in reducing technology costs, the evolution of energy systems is path-dependent and reinforced by technology policy feedbacks. This is showcased by Germany's Energiewende. Therefore, it is preferable to prioritize a clear articulation of the vision for the future desired end-state which can be shared with stakeholders a priori. Then utilize models as exploratory tools for assessing the economics and scale of corresponding interventions. These should include focused technology policy that aims to commoditize relevant technical innovations through learning-by-doing and scale economies. Ideally such models should be open, exploratory, reflexive and incorporate the dynamics of innovation.

    Author(s): Sgouris Sgouridis, Christian Kimmich, Jordi Solé, Martin Černý, Melf-Hinrich Ehlers, Christian Kerschner

    Publication date: 6. 2022

    Volume: 88

    Issue number: June 2022

    Electronic version(s), related files and links: http://dx.doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erss.2022.102497

  • Ilona Pezenka, Christian Weismayer, David Bourdin
    "Sharing emotions: Empathy and its influence on selling skills."

    Author(s): Ilona Pezenka, Christian Weismayer, David Bourdin

    Publication date: 24. 5. 2022

  • Roman Egger, Joanne Yu
    "A Topic Modeling Comparison Between LDA, NMF, Top2Vec, and BERTopic to Demystify Twitter Posts"
    2022 in: Frontiers in Sociology.

    The richness of social media data has opened a new avenue for social science research to gain insights into human behaviors and experiences. In particular, emerging data-driven approaches relying on topic models provide entirely new perspectives on interpreting social phenomena. However, the short, text-heavy, and unstructured nature of social media content often leads to methodological challenges in both data collection and analysis. In order to bridge the developing field of computational science and empirical social research, this study aims to evaluate the performance of four topic modeling techniques; namely latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA), non-negative matrix factorization (NMF), Top2Vec, and BERTopic. In view of the interplay between human relations and digital media, this research takes Twitter posts as the reference point and assesses the performance of different algorithms concerning their strengths and weaknesses in a social science context. Based on certain details during the analytical procedures and on quality issues, this research sheds light on the efficacy of using BERTopic and NMF to analyze Twitter data.

    Author(s): Roman Egger, Joanne Yu

    Publication date: 6. 5. 2022

    Electronic version(s), related files and links: http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fsoc.2022.886498

  • Xiang Lian, Wilson Cheong Hin Hong, Joanne Yu
    "An eye-tracking study on autistic children’s visual attention: The use of spatial-progression, time-sequence, colours and shape-patterns in picture book designs"
    2022 in: Current Psychology.

    Different from the visual attention of typically developing (TD) children, children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have the tendency to pay attention to parts rather than the whole of objects. Hence, the pictures in a typical story-based picture book, which usually contains various objects and elements, may appear distracting and discomforting for children with ASD. By recruiting 4–6-year-old ASD and TD children (N = 40) to participate in an eye-tracking experiment, this study examined participants’ visual attention on a typical children’s picture book and four other researcher-designed picture books that are simplified in composition and types of elements. Results from between-group comparisons indicated children with ASD had significantly fewer fixation counts and shorter total fixation durations when reading the story-based picture book than TD children. Significant within-group differences were also identified comparing the ASD participants’ reading of the story-based and the researcher-made picture books. However, the viewing behaviours of the ASD and TD groups when reading the researcher-designed books were much more similar. Discussion of the visual characteristics and practical implications for educators to effectively design picture books were offered.

    Author(s): Xiang Lian, Wilson Cheong Hin Hong, Joanne Yu

    Publication date: 19. 4. 2022

    Electronic version(s), related files and links: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12144-022-03091-1

  • Bernd Schuh, Helene Gorny, Roland Gaugitsch, Manon Badouix, Christian Weismayer, Sabine Sedlacek
    "Irish case study: Iveragh Peninsula - TOURISM: Carrying Capacity Methodology for Tourism"

    Author(s): Bernd Schuh, Helene Gorny, Roland Gaugitsch, Manon Badouix, Christian Weismayer, Sabine Sedlacek

    Publication date: 4. 2022

    Publisher: ESPON EGTC

  • "Regional sustainability and tourism carrying capacities"
    2022 in: Journal of Cleaner Production. Volume: 339.

    Discussion on the growth limits and carrying capacity of tourism destinations is not new. Already for decades, carrying capacity has been at the core of sustainable tourism development and aims at offering ‘time/space-specific answers’ for individual localities of various European regions. There are many definitions of this concept and the calculation of a single ‘magic number’ quantifying the carrying capacity is infeasible for reasons such as differences in the thresholds established by visitors and residents, ecological limits, various resources, etc. The discussion about carrying capacity in the context of regional sustainability is linked to human activities impacting a region. This impact has to be within the region's ecological limits and consistent with the region's social and economic constraints in order to ensure adequate supporting functions for the population living in the region. This means that regions should learn as much as possible about the impact of tourism on their destinations in order to develop solid and adequate policies for regional and tourism development. This paper therefore introduces a novel methodology for assessing carrying capacity in tourism destinations, which (a) is specific enough to cater to destination-specific needs, as verified by pilot-testing on various representative case studies, and (b) is general enough to be applicable to any tourism destination throughout European regions. The results emphasize the importance of such a hands-on actionable methodology, while at the same time underlining the importance of dialogue between different stakeholder groups. The value added of the developed methodology is that it simultaneously addresses regional sustainability and tourism development, while acknowledging the fact that there is no single metric or value for carrying capacity. Finally, it is applicable to various types of destinations.

    Author(s): Bozana Zekan, Christian Weismayer, Ulrich Gunter, Bernd Schuh, Sabine Sedlacek

    Publication date: 10. 3. 2022

    Volume: 339

    Electronic version(s), related files and links: http://dx.doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2022.130624

  • Martin Reisenbichler, Thomas Reutterer, David Schweidel, Daniel Dan
    "Frontiers:: Supporting Content Marketing with Natural Language Generation"
    2022 in: Marketing Science.

    Advances in natural language generation (NLG) have facilitated technologies such as digital voice assistants and chatbots. In this research, we demonstrate how NLG can support content marketing by using it to draft content for the landing page of a website in search engine optimization (SEO).

    Author(s): Martin Reisenbichler, Thomas Reutterer, David Schweidel, Daniel Dan

    Publication date: 25. 2. 2022

    Electronic version(s), related files and links: http://dx.doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1287/mksc.2022.1354

  • Anyu Liu, Yoo Ri Kim, Jason L. Stienmetz, Yining Chen
    "Visitor flow spillover effects on attraction demand: A spatial econometric model with multisource data"
    2022 in: Tourism Management.

    Author(s): Anyu Liu, Yoo Ri Kim, Jason L. Stienmetz, Yining Chen

    Publication date: 2. 2022

    Electronic version(s), related files and links: http://dx.doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2021.104432

  • "Der Glaube an Markt- und Meinungsforschung in Österreich"

    Wie Meinungsforschung funktionieren sollte. Das Image von Meinungsumfragen hat in der letzten Zeit durch verschiedene öffentliche Debatten an Marktwert verloren bzw. in der Bevölkerung zu Unsicherheiten bezüglich des Wahrheitsgehalts geführt.

    Author(s): Udo Wagner

    Publication date: 26. 1. 2022

    Publisher: PROST Magazin

  • Fotios Petropoulos, Daniele Apiletti, Vassilios Assimakopoulos, ... ..., Ulrich Gunter, ... ...
    "Forecasting: theory and practice"
    2022 in: International Journal of Forecasting.

    Forecasting has always been at the forefront of decision making and planning. The uncertainty that surrounds the future is both exciting and challenging, with individuals and organisations seeking to minimise risks and maximise utilities. The large number of forecasting applications calls for a diverse set of forecasting methods to tackle real-life challenges. This article provides a non-systematic review of the theory and the practice of forecasting. We provide an overview of a wide range of theoretical, state-of-the-art models, methods, principles, and approaches to prepare, produce, organise, and evaluate forecasts. We then demonstrate how such theoretical concepts are applied in a variety of real-life contexts. We do not claim that this review is an exhaustive list of methods and applications. However, we wish that our encyclopedic presentation will offer a point of reference for the rich work that has been undertaken over the last decades, with some key insights for the future of forecasting theory and practice. Given its encyclopedic nature, the intended mode of reading is non-linear. We offer cross-references to allow the readers to navigate through the various topics. We complement the theoretical concepts and applications covered by large lists of free or open-source software implementations and publicly-available databases.

    Author(s): Fotios Petropoulos, Daniele Apiletti, Vassilios Assimakopoulos, ... ..., Ulrich Gunter, ... ...

    Publication date: 20. 1. 2022

    Electronic version(s), related files and links: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijforecast.2021.11.001

  • "Urban tourism: major trends"
    2022 Pages: 19-30

    Tourism is a comprehensive, highly diversified and strategically important industry that plays a strong driving role in national economic and social development. Cities have become the key nodes of world tourism development. This chapter focuses on the development of tourism in more than 100 cities in Europe and expounds upon the main trends of world tourism development as reported by European Cities Marketing and the World Tourism Cities Federation, the two leading organizations in the field of city tourism. Regarding the pattern of global tourism development, the share of the European international tourism market keeps shrinking, tourism in American cities remains stable and tourism in Asia-Pacific region cities continues to expand under the influence of globalization. For Europe, the underlying causes of the changing nature of city tourism in Europe are analysed in more detail. Greater global mobility, the information boom and increased knowledge-sharing between people of recent years have facilitated the development of urban structures and led to higher levels of city tourism demand. This growth, however, may prove to be a burden for cities and comes at a price if it is not planned properly.

    Author(s): Bozana Zekan, Karl Wöber

    Publication date: 14. 1. 2022

    Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd

    Pages: 19-30

    Electronic version(s), related files and links: http://dx.doi.org/https://doi.org/10.4337/9781789907407.00008

    Host publication editor(s): J. van der Borg

  • Roman Egger, Joanne Yu
    "Data Science and Interdisciplinarity"
    2022 Pages: 35-49

    In parallel with the progression of technology, the tourism industry has been continuously confronted with a large amount of data that needs to be systematically analyzed in order to gain significant insights into the science and business sectors. Data science has emerged as an interdisciplinary field where specific competencies from different sub-disciplines come together. This poses far-reaching challenges for both researchers and practitioners alike. To unlock the pillars of data science research and provide a guideline for relevant stakeholders in tourism, this chapter aims to conceptualize the core competencies needed in the data science process. More specifically, it will start with a discussion regarding the interplay between computer science, mathematics and statistics, and domain knowledge. Next, the procedure of data science will be classified into seven distinct phases: (1) topic formulation and relevance for academia and industry, (2) data access and data collection, (3) data pre-processing, (4) feature engineering, (5) analysis, (6) model evaluation and model tuning, and (7) interpretation of results. This chapter will review each stage in depth and evaluate the corresponding level of knowledge and competencies required for each phase. Finally, current implications and potential future directions of data science in the tourism industry will be discussed.

    Author(s): Roman Egger, Joanne Yu

    Publication date: 1. 1. 2022

    Publisher: Springer

    Pages: 35-49

  • Roman Egger, Joanne Yu
    "Epistemological Challenges"
    2022 Pages: 17-34

    Epistemology is concerned with the preconditions and goals of knowledge, helping us to understand how knowledge is generated. However, in recent years, the availability of Big Data and the advancement of Data Science (DS) methods have led to heated discussions as well as to a divided scientific community. On the one hand, there are those who believe that knowledge can now be generated exclusively from data, rendering theory no longer necessary, while the opposing voices, on the other hand, do not want to rely solely on the results that algorithms extract from the data. As such, this chapter discusses both perspectives and warns against taking a one-sided position. Rather, the goal is to understand the advantages of both sides and to profit from the synergies between the two scientific approaches.

    Author(s): Roman Egger, Joanne Yu

    Publication date: 1. 1. 2022

    Publisher: Springer

    Pages: 17-34

  • Henrique Fátima Boyol Ngan, Weng Si (Clara) Lei, Joanne Yu
    "Eye-Tracking Analysis on Potential Art Festival Goers"
    2022 in: Event Management .

    In today’s buyer-empowered world, it is critical to design event marketing materials in a more effective way to attract potential event goers. Not surprisingly, official event websites and promotional videos have been widely used to allow the potential visitors to pre-experience the events. Yet, whilst acknowledging the power of this technique, the effects of using different media in attracting the visitors remain unclear. Hence, this study analyses the visual patterns of potential event goers towards differing promotional materials as well as how the attentional processes relate to their motivational aspects and visiting intentions. Results indicated that event goers focused more on the center of the screen when it comes to the promotional video; when browsing the website, their attention was attracted mainly by programmes related to dance. In practice, the findings benefit event marketers by providing important directions and implications for the design of the promotional materials.

    Author(s): Henrique Fátima Boyol Ngan, Weng Si (Clara) Lei, Joanne Yu

    Publication date: 2022

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